VALUE ORIENTATION OF THE CZECH POPULATION & PERCEPTION OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS
Among the most valued principles in the Czech society are family, health, healthy environment, life satisfaction and education.
Health and disease
The National Health Strategy of the Czech Republic is drawn up in accordance with the guidelines and objectives of the World Health Organization, of which the Czech Republic became a member in 1993. Accordingly, the terms of health and disease is defined:
“Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not just the absence of illness”
“Disease is a condition where, due to external or internal influences, the homeostasis of the organism is disturbed or the structure or function of one organ or whole system is violated”
According to a survey by the Centre for Public Opinion Research of the Sociological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, citizens perceive as the highest values of their life:
- to live a happy family / partner life
- to live in health and in a healthy environment
- to live freely according to their convictions
Despite the fact that the citizens of the Czech Republic value health as one of the highest, it is often perceived as a matter of course – especially for the younger generation. Health care and prevention is neglected, and initiative to maintain health is not sufficient – some patients still have the tendency to transfer responsibility for illness to healthcare professionals. Thanks to the health education and health programs of the Czech Republic, however, people are more active with regard to the care of their health.
Prevention system in the Czech Republic
Prevention is divided into:
It focuses on activities to maintain and promote health at a time when the disease has not yet occurred. It includes community health activities, health education, compulsory vaccination etc.
It focuses on risk groups and individuals at risk of disease. It has the character of searching for endangered persons and early detection of illness. These include preventive examinations and screening examinations.
It focuses on the prevention of complications, the deterioration of the condition of the illness that has already occurred. It includes, for example, compensatory aids or preventive means of rehabilitation and education.
Prevention in the Czech Republic includes a relatively sophisticated system of preventive examinations, which are covered by health insurance. This system is based on the early detection of serious illnesses in the early stages that are not as costly as ill-treated and late-discovered cases.In addition to preventive care during pregnancy and childhood, the preventive system also includes adult preventive examinations. The insurance company pays check -ups once every two years. This includes haematological and biochemical examination, measurement and assessment of physiological functions (blood pressure, pulse, breath and ECG), calculation of body mass index, skin examination, hearing and eye examination, mammography (women from 45 years), occult bleeding (from 50 years). Dental checks are also included in the system of preventive examinations. They are reimbursed twice a year for children under the age of 18, and once a year for adults. They include assessment of dental and gum condition, hygiene, detection of anomalies in teeth. The last significant area of preventive care are the gynaecologist’s check – ups for women from the age of 15 once a year including cytological, bacteriological and virologic examinations.
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