The first documented state body in the territory of today’s Czech Republic was the trible union of the Sam’s empire. In the 9th century., the Great Moravian Empire was formed, later the Czech Kingdom. Since the time of Charles IV. it was the country of the Crown of Bohemia. Gradual integration into the Habsburg monarchy followed.
After the expiration of Austria – Hungary in 1918, Czechoslovakia was established as a unitary state with a republican system. In 1939 the territory of the present Czech Republic was occupied by the German army and the puppet protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was established.
Czechoslovakia as a democratic state was restored in 1945. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was federalized in 1969 under the communist rule. The resistance to totalization and normalization gradually increased and culminated in the so-called Velvet Revolution of November 17, 1989, which overthrew the Communist regime, enabled the restoration of democracy and free enterprise.
At the end of 1992, the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic disappeared as a country of two nations, and two new states were created instead: the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
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3/ HLAVAČKA, Milan a Petr ČORNEJ. Dějepis pro gymnázia a střední školy. Druhé vydání. Praha: SPN – pedagogické nakladatelství, akciová společnost, 2017.